In, “The Invention of Ethnicity in the United States,” by Kathleen Neils Conzen, David A. Gerber, Ewa Morawska, George E. Pozzetta, and Rudolph J. Vecoli, mass immigration is considered a persistent theme of American history, but scholars have emphasized on the resistance that immigrants had towards Americanization. The cultural and social changes that immigrant’s fall into when they assimilate to a new country shifts; but when immigrants move without the sole purpose of integration groups are formed and ethnic Americans become on of a kind. Different ethnic social groups form in cities, creating the rise of ethnic movements within these cities. These movements are what started the study of ethnicity as a form of human collectivity in America. Some studies define ethnic groups as interest groups. The people who hold the same ideas and values gather and create their own identity in the New World. This concept and invention of ethnicity also teaches us how immigration created and changed the American society as a whole. “Race, Nation, Culture in Recent Immigration Studies,” by George J. Sanchez, discusses contemporary issues regarding immigration and race. Once sweatshops were discovered the quest for equal and fair working conditions was formed. The working conditions that these different immigrant groups were working in were unfair and inhuman. Especially within Latin and Asian communities, immigrants rights were taken away, and in some cases were stripped of their American identity if identified as an illegal immigrant. This reading goes into different stories about the findings of sweatshops and of labor exploitation of illegal workers and how these findings are what led to civil rights cases. Race and immigration in America are defined separately, but in American history the two have gone hand and hand. The history behind immigration in American, and the history behind race in America come together creating this one central important understanding of justice and equality in America.